Surface water characteristics and quality

Surface water may be derived from the following sources;

In many cases ground water or tube well water ends up being the same as surface water becuase of infiltration of surface water into the aquifer, either by entering an unsecured tube well,  or through fissures in the ground. Ideally water quality should be checked on a regular basis for contamination. However this is not always possible, and this is one of the reasons for the design of the CAFE filter with AFM.

Surface water will always have biological contamination and pathogens, either from human or animal origin.   The key ones are;

The above is only a small sample of parasites found in water supplies,  there will also be bacteria, viri, and fungi