Activated Filter Media

There are over 2 billion cases of water relate disease every year.
More people die from lead posioning than from malaria

There is no excuse, AFM inside a CAFE filter is a simple sustainable solutions for most of the issues.

Hepatitus A

Virus infection, causes vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dehydration and liver damage. 100 million cases per year.


Vibrio cholerae

Cholera, serious bacterium infection, often fatal if untreated. Bacterium hides inside copepod water insects which give then protection from chlorine.



Some bacterium strains are pathogenic. E.coli is used as a faecal bacterium indicator. If it is found then there are likely much more serous issues with the water.



Bacterium causing diarrhoea, and can cause dehydration in children. Very common and can cause serious infection.



Shigella dysenteriae

In excess of 200 million cases a year, high mortality risk from diarrhoea, dysentery, and dehydration.



Salmonella typhi

Typhoid, 30 days after exposure may cause headache, abdominal pain. Mortality 25% without treatment. 20 million known cases per year.


Naegleria fowleri

Brain disease, no treatment available, infection is fatal. 7 to 15 um cyst stage. Common in South East Asia

© 1984, American Society for Microbiology



Can cause dysentery, liver damage and bowel disease. Cyst size 10 to 20 um



Parasite, cyst is 20 um in size. Causes aggressive diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration. Over 0.5 billion cases a year



The most common water borne disease, causes serveral billion infections every year. Diarrhea, dehydration, vomiting. Not killed by chlorine, but removed by Cafe with AFM


Arsenic from drinking ground water, over 1/2 billion people around the world suffer from arsenic. Learning difficulties, kidney and lung damage, cancer.



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Surface water characteristics and quality

Surface water may be derived from the following sources;

  • IMG 0284.JPG (2)pond water, with control over the catchment area to minimise pollution
  • lake or reservoir
  • river water

In many cases ground water or tube well water ends up being the same as surface water becuase of infiltration of surface water into the aquifer, either by entering an unsecured tube well,  or through fissures in the ground. Ideally water quality should be checked on a regular basis for contamination. However this is not always possible, and this is one of the reasons for the design of the CAFE filter with AFM.

Surface water will always have biological contamination and pathogens, either from human or animal origin.   The key ones are;

  • cryptosporidium,  oocysts measure 4 microns
  • giardia, oocysts measure 20 microns
  • nematodes such as Ascaris, measures 40 microns

The above is only a small sample of parasites found in water supplies,  there will also be bacteria, viri, and fungi


Tube well and ground water

Ground water is the preferred source of water in many countries in order to avoid human pathogens.  However this is not always the situation,  depending upon the depth of the the tube well and the age of the water,  there may well be biological contamination. The ground water may be a few hours  to many thousands of years old,  the older the water, the less likely there will be  viable pathogens in the supply.

Over the last 40 years there has been a huge increase in the number of tube wells in an effort to obtain water that is non pathogenic. Contaminated water can cause diarrhoea disease and dehydration leading to mortality amount infants and the elderly.  This was the main drive to sink tube wells and 10's of millions have been drilled in India and around Asia and Africa.  Many aid agencies also just drill tube wells and fit a pump, without analysing the water, of checking the quality on a regular basis.  As a consequence,  in countries such as;

  • Bangladesh
  • India, West Bengal
  • Vietnam, Red River

and many other locations,  the water has very high arsenic concentrations,  the following are some other issues.

  • arsenic
  • fluoride
  • chromium
  • ferric & manganese
  • selenium
  • uranium

We are now in a situation in Bangladesh and India where we have the greatest human poisoning in history, attributed to arsenic and most of it was funded by the world bank and aid agencies.  The upper limit for arsenic is 10ppb,  filtration systems such as CAFE should be used to treat all water, including tube well ground water.


Dryden Aqua

IMG 0002

Dryden Aqua in Edinburgh support CAFE and provide the AFM activated filter media for the CAFE filters


Cafe / DA membership organisations & certification

AWSdwi logo 2IFTS logo copyISO 9001 2008 Logowqa dryden